Ace Your NLP Interview with These Top Questions and Answers

Natural Language Processing (NLP) has become an integral part of many industries, from customer service and content generation to sentiment analysis and language translation. As the demand for NLP professionals continues to rise, acing the interview process is crucial for securing your dream job. In this comprehensive article, we’ll explore the top NLP interview questions and provide concise yet informative answers to help you stand out from the competition.

Understanding NLP Basics

Before delving into more advanced concepts, it’s essential to have a solid grasp of NLP fundamentals. Here are some common NLP interview questions for freshers:

  1. What is Naive Bayes algorithm, and when can we use this algorithm in NLP?

    • The Naive Bayes algorithm is a collection of classifiers based on the Bayes’ theorem, used for classification tasks like sentiment prediction, spam filtering, document classification, and more.
    • It’s suitable for scenarios with multiple classes, text classification, and dynamic data, as it converges quickly and requires less training data compared to other models.
  2. Explain Dependency Parsing in NLP?

    • Dependency parsing, also known as syntactic parsing, assigns a syntactic structure to a sentence by identifying its dependency parses and the relationships between “head” words.
    • It helps understand the correlations between words in a sentence and can be used for semantic analysis in addition to syntactic structuring.
  3. What is text Summarization?

    • Text summarization is the process of condensing a lengthy text while preserving its core meaning and impact.
    • It aims to create a summary that outlines the main points of a document, which can be achieved through extraction-based or abstraction-based summarization techniques.
  4. What is NLTK? How is it different from Spacy?

    • NLTK (Natural Language Toolkit) is a Python library containing programs and libraries for symbolic and statistical NLP tasks, such as tokenization, stemming, and lemmatization.
    • Compared to Spacy, NLTK has a broader range of libraries but offers fewer optimized algorithms, while Spacy has an object-oriented library and supports word vectors.
  5. What is information extraction?

    • Information extraction is the process of automatically extracting structured information from unstructured sources and assigning meaning to it.
    • It involves techniques like entity extraction, relation extraction, sentiment analysis, and document classification to extract relevant information from text.
  6. What is Bag of Words?

    • Bag of Words is a model that relies on word frequencies or occurrences to train a classifier, creating an occurrence matrix for documents or sentences, regardless of their grammatical structure or word order.
  7. What is Pragmatic Ambiguity in NLP?

    • Pragmatic ambiguity refers to words or sentences that have multiple interpretations depending on the context, leading to ambiguity in their meaning.
    • It occurs when the intended meaning of a sentence is unclear due to the multiple possible meanings of the words used.
  8. What is Masked Language Model?

    • A Masked Language Model is a technique used to predict the words to be used in a sentence by learning deep representations from corrupted input.
    • It is often employed in tasks like language understanding and generation, aiming to improve performance on downstream NLP tasks.

Diving Deeper into NLP Concepts

As you progress in your NLP career, you’ll encounter more advanced concepts and techniques. Here are some intermediate to advanced NLP interview questions:

  1. Which techniques can be used for keyword normalization in NLP?

    • Lemmatization and stemming are commonly used techniques for keyword normalization, which involve converting words to their base or root form.
  2. How can we compute the distance between two word vectors in NLP?

    • Cosine similarity and Euclidean distance are commonly used to measure the distance between two word vectors in NLP.
    • Cosine similarity establishes the cosine angle between the vectors, with values closer to 1 indicating higher similarity.
  3. What are the possible features of a text corpus in NLP?

    • Features of a text corpus can include word counts, vector notations, part-of-speech tags, basic dependency grammar, and more.
  4. How can we reduce the dimensions of a document-term matrix for machine learning models?

    • Techniques like keyword normalization, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) can be used to reduce the dimensions of a document-term matrix.
  5. Which text parsing techniques can be used for noun phrase detection, verb phrase detection, subject detection, and object detection in NLP?

    • Dependency parsing and constituency parsing are commonly used for these tasks, as they analyze the syntactic structure of sentences.
  6. How can we establish word similarity using the Spacy package?

    • In the Spacy package, word similarity can be computed using the similarity function, which calculates the cosine similarity between word vectors.
  7. What is the difference between BERT and XLNet architectures?

    • While BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) uses bidirectional context, XLNet employs permutation-based language modeling, allowing for more flexible token predictions.
    • XLNet has outperformed BERT on several NLP tasks and achieves state-of-the-art results in areas like sentiment analysis and question answering.
  8. What are the key differences between NLP and Conversational Interfaces (CI)?

    • NLP focuses on helping machines understand and learn language concepts, while CI aims to provide users with an interface for interaction, often leveraging NLP techniques.
    • NLP uses AI technology to interpret user requests through language, while CI utilizes various conversational aids like voice, chat, and images.
  9. List some popular NLP tools and libraries.

    • Some widely-used NLP tools and libraries include Spacy, TextBlob, Textacy, Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK), Retext, NLP.js, Stanford NLP, and CogcompNLP.
  10. What is Parts-of-Speech (POS) tagging?

    • POS tagging is the process of identifying and grouping words in a document as parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.) based on their context, aiding in grammatical analysis and understanding.
  11. Explain Named Entity Recognition (NER).

    • NER is an information retrieval process that identifies and categorizes specific entities like people, organizations, locations, and more within text documents, aiding in information extraction and analysis.
  12. How can we implement NER using the Spacy package?

    • The Spacy package can be used for NER by loading the appropriate language model, creating a document object, and iterating through the ents (entities) attribute to extract and classify named entities.

With these NLP interview questions and answers, you’ll be well-equipped to showcase your knowledge and impress potential employers. Remember, preparation is key – practice explaining concepts clearly and concisely, and be ready to provide relevant examples or implementations when asked.

Good luck with your NLP interviews!

NLP Interview Questions and Answers | Natural Language Processing Interview Questions | Intellipaat


What are the 4 types of NLP?

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is one of the most important techniques in computer science and it is a key part of many exciting applications such as AI and chatbots. There are 4 different types of techniques: Statistical Techniques, Stochastic Techniques, Rule-Based Techniques and Hybrid Techniques.

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