The Ultimate Guide to Frontend Developer Interview Questions in 2023

I’ve been making software for 5 years and my specialty is cross-stack development with React Native, Angular, and NestJS. I also do pre-sales proof of concept development. Im an EPAM University coordinator and develop React training programs. I like sharing my experience to make the learning process easier for future developers.

I’ve been making software for 5 years and my specialty is cross-stack development with React Native, Angular, and NestJS. I also do pre-sales proof of concept development. Im an EPAM University coordinator and develop React training programs. I like sharing my experience to make the learning process easier for future developers.

When you apply for jobs as a front end developer, you need to be ready to give the best answers and stand out as a senior candidate. When you’re getting ready for your next technical interview, use these questions that companies that hire JavaScript developers often ask.

Nikita Shevtsiv, a Senior Software Engineer and Certified Technical Interviewer at EPAM Anywhere, has put together this list of the 11 most common interview questions for senior front end developers. The questions and answers, along with helpful hints, will help you prepare for your next interview at EPAM Anywhere or somewhere else.

Frontend development is an exciting and rapidly evolving field. As a frontend developer, you get to bring designs and ideas to life through code. Your work impacts how users interact with and experience websites and applications.

With the demand for skilled frontend developers on the rise, preparing for frontend developer interviews is key to landing your dream job. This comprehensive guide covers frequently asked frontend interview questions, from HTML and CSS basics to advanced JavaScript concepts

Whether you’re a junior developer looking to break into the field or a senior engineer preparing to interview candidates, this guide will provide valuable insights into assessing frontend skills. Let’s dive in!

HTML Interview Questions

HTML forms the basic structure and content of webpages. Expect interviewers to assess your understanding of HTML fundamentals.

Q: What is the purpose of the <doctype> declaration in HTML?

The doctype declaration tells the browser how to display the page by specifying the document type and HTML version. For HTML5, use .

Q: How are <strong> and <em> different?

  • <strong> makes text bold to indicate importance.
  • <em> renders text in italics to emphasize meaning.

Both utilize default browser styling and are semantic HTML tags.

Q: What are data attributes in HTML and how are they used?

Data attributes allow storing extra information on standard HTML elements. Define custom data attributes prefixed with data- like data-name="John". Access values in JavaScript using

Data attributes help bind HTML and JavaScript without unnecessary IDs or classes.

Q: Can a web page have multiple <header> elements? What about <footer> elements?

Yes, both <header> and <footer> can appear multiple times on a page, usually contained within different <section> elements.

For example, a page can have:

  • Main header with site branding
  • Blog section header
  • Blog section footer
  • Main footer with copyright text

CSS Interview Questions

CSS brings styles and visual treatments to HTML content. Interviewers will probe your CSS expertise with questions like:

Q: What is the difference between margins and paddings in CSS?

  • Margins set space around an element’s outer border.
  • Paddings set space between an element’s content and border.

Margins can have negative values, while paddings cannot.

Q: How is the CSS box model structured and what does each component refer to?

The CSS box model comprises:

  • Content: Text, images, etc.
  • Padding: Space around content.
  • Border: Box edge.
  • Margin: Space around element.

Understanding the box model is crucial for layouts and spacing.

Q: What are CSS vendor prefixes and why are they used?

Vendor prefixes allow browsers to experiment with CSS features before final standardization. For example, -webkit- for Chrome/Safari and -moz- for Firefox.

This provides early access for developers to try new features while awaiting official support.

Q: Describe z-index and stacking context in CSS.

The z-index property controls element overlap order. Higher z-index values appear on top.

Stacking context refers to a hierarchy of z-index levels. Stacking contexts can be nested, with child contexts forming independently of ancestors.

Q: What are advantages of using CSS preprocessors like Sass/LESS?

Benefits include:

  • Nested rules for better organization
  • Variables and mixins to reuse code
  • Mathematical operations for dimensions
  • Better programmatic control vs plain CSS

Preprocessors help manage complex stylesheets and add useful functionality.

JavaScript Interview Questions

JavaScript powers the interactivity and dynamic behavior on most websites. Expect JS questions ranging from language fundamentals to coding challenges.

Q: Explain event delegation in JavaScript.

Event delegation utilizes event bubbling by handling events at a parent level rather than individual child nodes. This is more efficient, especially for dynamic content.

For example, one click handler on a <ul> versus multiple handlers on each <li>.

Q: What is the difference between == and === operators?

  • == checks for value equality only.
  • === checks for both value and type equality.

For example, "1" == 1 but "1" !== 1. Using === avoids unintended type coercion.

Q: What is a closure in JavaScript?

A closure refers to an inner function having access to variables in its outer function scope. The closure “closes” over the external state.

Closures are useful for callbacks, encapsulation, and state preservation.

Q: What is the significance of "use strict" in JavaScript code?

"use strict" enables strict mode, which enforces stricter parsing and error handling. Benefits include:

  • Prevents accidental globals
  • Disallows duplicate parameter names
  • Throws error on invalid assignments
  • Prohibits this keyword pitfalls

Strict mode makes JavaScript code more robust and secure.

Q: What is the difference between asynchronous and non-blocking code in JavaScript?

Asynchronous means code executes out of sequence. Callbacks or promises manage flow rather than returning immediately.

Non-blocking means code does not halt execution while waiting on I/O or network activity. Control returns immediately to the event loop.

Asynchronous code can be blocking or non-blocking. Non-blocking is preferred for performance.

Testing Questions

Testing frontend code thoroughly is vital. Interviewers want to know you understand different testing methods.

Q: What is the difference between unit, integration and functional testing?

  • Unit testing targets isolated code components like functions.
  • Integration testing verifies combined components like user flows.
  • Functional testing validates the whole system meets requirements.

Each testing level builds on the previous ones incrementally.

Q: What testing frameworks have you used for frontend applications?

Popular JavaScript test frameworks include:

  • Jest – Snapshot testing and mocking
  • Mocha – Browser and Node.js testing
  • Jasmine – Behavior-driven development
  • Cypress – End-to-end testing

Q: How can you target DOM elements effectively when writing UI tests?

Use unique identifiers like data attributes or DOM IDs. Classes can result in fragile tests.

Helper libraries like Testing Library encourage query by text content. This reduces reliance on implementation details.

Q: How do you test asynchronous code like promises and async/await?

Use test runners that support async like Jest. Return promises or use async functions.

Assert after code completes using done() callbacks or resolves promises. Async tooling makes testing async code straightforward.

Performance Questions

Users expect fast, responsive frontend experiences. Be ready to discuss optimization techniques.

Q: What are some ways to improve frontend performance?

  • Minify code and compress assets
  • Enable caching with headers
  • Use CDNs to distribute resources
  • Lazy load below-the-fold images
  • Audit with Lighthouse

Q: How can you speed up page load times?

  • Minimize HTTP requests – concatenate files
  • Optimize images
  • Remove unnecessary code and third-party scripts
  • Defer non-critical JS
  • Server-side render initial HTML

Q: What tools can help diagnose frontend performance issues?

  • Browser DevTools – Network and Performance tabs
  • PageSpeed Insights
  • WebPageTest
  • Lighthouse

Profiling tools pinpoint optimization opportunities.

Accessibility Questions

Accessibility is an important aspect of modern web development. Be ready to demonstrate your accessibility knowledge.

Q: What is the purpose of ARIA roles in HTML?

ARIA roles convey semantic meaning, especially when using generic elements like <div> and <span>. This improves accessibility for assistive technologies like screen readers.

Some ARIA roles include navigation, search, alert, and dialog.

Q: How can you design and test web interfaces for screen reader accessibility?

  • Use proper semantic HTML5 elements and ARIA roles.
  • Check color contrast ratios.
  • Enable keyboard navigation.
  • Use a screen reader like VoiceOver to experience the page.
  • Automate accessibility testing with tools like axe or Lighthouse.

Q: What are some advantages of semantic HTML?

Semantic HTML clearly describes content purpose with tags like <nav>, <header>, <aside>, etc. Benefits include:

  • Better accessibility for those using assistive technologies
  • Improved SEO by providing contextual clues to search engines
  • More maintainable codebase

React Interview Questions

React is a popular frontend framework. Employers want to see you understand React principles and ecosystem.

Q: What is React reconciliation?

Reconciliation is the algorithm React uses to diff component updates to determine minimal DOM manipulation for better

rebase vs. merge: a comprehensive guide

frontend developer interview questions

1 Angular is a framework, React is a library. What is the difference between a framework and a library?

A library is a group of pre-written programs that can be used to do specific jobs, like making user interfaces or responding to network requests. A library usually has a group of functions or classes that developers can use in their code to get a certain job done. Libraries are designed to be flexible and can be used in a variety of applications.

An application framework, on the other hand, is a more complete set of tools and rules that gives you a way to build an entire app. Most of the time, a framework comes with a set of libraries and tools, as well as rules and best practices that developers should follow. Frameworks make it easier to follow the rules when making an app, and developers often have to carefully follow the framework’s instructions to make sure their code works well with the rest of the app.

frontend developer interview questions

frontend developer interview questions

In short, libraries and frameworks both offer pre-written code that can be used to make apps. The main difference between them is the number of apps they can make and how abstract they are. Libraries are more adaptable and can be used for many different tasks, while frameworks offer a wider range of tools and standards for creating whole programs.

Frontend Interview Questions 2023 | Front End Developer Interview Questions for 2023 | Simplilearn

What should you expect in a front-end developer interview?

Front-End Developer Interviews: What Can You Expect? When interviewing for a front-end developer role, expect questions about your skills and experience with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. An interviewer may also ask questions about your experience with specific frameworks or libraries, such as React or Angular.

How do I prepare for a front end developer interview?

Thorough understanding of HTML, CSS, JavaScript, DOM manipulation, responsive design, Git, Angular, React, testing, and optimization ensures readiness for industry-leading roles. Prepare for your Front End Developer Interview with our curated list of Front End Developer Interview Questions and Answrs.

What are frontend developer interview questions based on HTML?

These are some of the most important Front End Interview Questions related to Version Control. HTML is an integral part of Frontend Development. The following set of Frontend Developer Interview Questions are based on HTML. 1. What Is an Attribute in HTML?



Click on the button to subscribe

What are the most asked front-end developer interview questions for 2024?

Most asked Front-end developer interview questions for 2024: 1. What is the purpose of the HTML ‘doctype’ declaration? 2. How would you create a hyperlink in HTML?

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *