10 Types of Steel Columns Used in Construction

Steel column types
  • Circular columns. Circular columns are columns classified based on their shape. …
  • Composite columns. …
  • L-shape columns. …
  • Short reinforced columns. …
  • Spiral reinforced concrete columns. …
  • Square or rectangular columns. …
  • Stub columns. …
  • Tension columns.

Types of steel section and their uses in construction field

Steel column types

Here are some common types of steel columns:

Circular columns

Circular columns are columns classified based on their shape. These columns have more than four longitudinal steel bars that serve as reinforcement bars inside of them. More often than not, circular columns are more resistant to bending than square or rectangular ones. Construction workers frequently use circular columns as bridge pillars, as well as for piling and elevating buildings for aesthetic purposes.

Composite columns

A type of reinforcement column known as a composite column is made of structural steel, reinforcement, and concrete. They have a high load carrying capacity and offer longitudinal reinforcement, which is why construction projects frequently use them when constructing high-rise buildings. Composite columns frequently perform well in fires and offer a high level of strength in a compact cross section.

L-shape columns

Based on their shape, L-shaped columns are one type of column. These columns are simple to build and cast, and because of the amount of support they offer, they are frequently a great option for buildings and other large, heavy structures. Construction workers use these columns in corners of boundary walls.

Short reinforced columns

Short reinforced columns are columns classified based on their slenderness. These columns contain steel bars and have a slenderness ratio of under 12 inches. Short reinforced columns are somewhat adaptable, and the loads they support vary and depend on things like the material’s strength and cross-sectional size.

Spiral reinforced concrete columns

Spiral reinforced concrete columns are reinforcement columns made of concrete with an embedded steel mesh known as rebar that strengthens the structure of the columns. A continuous helical bar is wrapped around each of these cylindrical columns. The column’s spiral design offers transverse support along the width of the building.

Square or rectangular columns

According to their shape, columns can be classified as square or rectangular. They have a minimum of four support beams made of longitudinal steel. Square or rectangular columns frequently make it simple to shutter, place reinforcement, and pour concrete. This, along with the fact that they are generally inexpensive, makes them a popular option for building construction.

Stub columns

Stub columns are columns classified based on their construction model. To add additional support, these columns rest on slabs rather than foundation footing. These short columns can be positioned either vertically or horizontally by construction workers. Stub columns are frequently made of steel, but they can also be made of concrete. A stub column might be present or in use, for instance, under overhead water tanks.

Tension columns

Tension columns receive a classification based on their loading abilities. Steel, concrete, or other types of material can be used to create tension columns. However, these columns are not frequently used in construction. These columns are typically used by construction workers in unique situations, like when building bridges or extending full-height columns to a foundation.

Tied reinforced concrete columns

Tied reinforced concrete columns are a particular variety of reinforcement columns made of concrete with an embedded mesh, also known as rebar, that provides reinforcement. These columns have closed lateral ties uniformly spaced across them. However, the spacing of the ties is important. Ties need to be spaced apart far enough so that the concrete won’t affect how it sets, but close enough to prevent structural failure.

T-shape columns

Based on their shape, T-shape columns are one type of column. Based on the specifications of their design, construction workers may make use of these columns. T-shape columns are most commonly used when constructing bridges.

What is a steel column?

A vertical structure member used in construction to provide crucial support is called a steel column. They may transfer loads from objects like beams, ceilings, floor slabs, or roof slabs to floors or foundations or they may carry loads in compression. Steel columns may also carry bending moments near cross-section axes.

Although there are many different materials that can be used for columns in construction, steel is a popular option. Compared to concrete structures, its structure is stronger, more flexible, and more durable. Additionally, compared to concrete columns, steel columns are typically more lightweight and quicker to construct.

Different steel column types are used in construction. Each type of column receives classification based on certain conditions. These classifications may include:

Other types of steel structures

Construction workers often use steel for more than columns. For example, many construction workers use steel beams. Similar to columns, beams act as structural support by carrying loads, forces, and bending moments. However, steel beams are horizontal rather than vertical.

Common types of other steel structures may include:


What is the most type of columns used in steel construction?

The four types of columns were Tuscan, Corinthian, Ionic, and Doric. These columns look straight and uniform from a distance.

How are columns classified?

A steel-reinforced concrete column is referred to as a reinforced concrete column. This column majorly used in building construction. Concrete is strong in compression and weak in tension.

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