What Is Operation Costing? (And How To Calculate It)

Operation costing is a mix of job costing and process costing

process costing
What is Process Costing? Process costing is used when there is mass production of similar products, where the costs associated with individual units of output cannot be differentiated from each other. In other words, the cost of each product produced is assumed to be the same as the cost of every other product.

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. It may be used when a product initially uses different raw materials, and is then finished using a common process that is the same for a group of products.

Operation Costing

Why is operation costing important?

Businesses can better understand and manage costs by accounting for the total cost of each operation through the use of operation costing. Businesses frequently attempt to lower operating costs to the point where they are most profitable while maintaining consistent and effective production. This strategy can assist businesses in maximizing their profits because excessive operating costs may force them to overcharge for their goods. Companies that produce both mass-produced and individualized goods may benefit from this method because it is useful in situations where products have a mixture of distinctive and general production procedures.

What is operation costing?

Operation costing is a technique used by accountants to determine product costs from process and job costs. This includes the prices of materials, labor and facility upkeep. For straightforward production models where products go through the same process each time, businesses frequently use process costing. Operation costing can assist some businesses with their more complicated production models. For instance, a business that sells personalized shirts might want to determine costs in a manner that takes into account various expenses.

How to calculate operation costing

A company may determine its costs in different ways depending on how many variables are involved in the production of a product. For instance, a furniture retailer that gives customers the option to choose from a variety of materials, colors, and styles may need to consider more operational steps than one that restricts customer choice to particular fashions. To figure out operation costs, follow these simple steps:

1. Evaluate process costing

Finding out how much it costs a business to produce a product in large quantities is the first step in calculating operation costs. The average cost of materials, the weighted average of inventory, or the order in which the company purchases and sells its goods are all potential cost factors. Depending on the products the business sells and how it operates, it may employ one or more of these techniques. This can assist it in preparing to deal with modifications to its selling and shipping processes.

2. Determine job costing

Identifying production costs is the second step in collecting operation costing. These expenses include overhead, labor and materials. A company that sells umbrellas, for instance, might include the price of metals and fabric, time spent working, facility fees, and equipment repair. When selling customized versions of their products, this step enables a business to account for more complicated processes. For instance, labor costs may rise for personalized products because the business may hire experts to make the specific alterations.

3. Find the sum of all operation costs

You can add these costs for each operation and take into account any special processes, like customizations, once you are aware of the job and process costing for production. Additionally, you can keep a thorough record of variables that you anticipate varying in upcoming calculations. It can be helpful for businesses to note how much their calculations vary between holidays and regular cycles because, for instance, a flower shop might receive more specialized orders around certain holidays.

4. Assess totals for each process

Once you have totals for each activity, you can determine how much the business spent on each activity. In order to determine areas where you can change operations, take into account looking at profit margins, cost variables, and outliers. For instance, you can determine whether there are any expenses you can eliminate or reduce if you notice a company spends more money in one department than others. This could aid the business in determining how much processes cost and whether it’s possible to use operations funding more effectively.

Benefits of understanding operation costing

Here are some additional benefits of understanding operation costing:

Example of operation costing

Here’s an illustration of how a company might determine its operational costs:

A plumbing equipment retailer wants to estimate its monthly operating expenses. The accountant at that company first assesses the process costing The business sells windows in batches, so the expert starts with the monthly cost of $50,000, which is the standard price for wood and glass. Costs for labor, including manufacturing and shipping, total $35,000. Last but not least, the overhead expenses total $100,000 and include facility rent and equipment fees. This means the total process cost is $185,000.

The accountant then determines job costs for the remaining production processes of the business. This includes $80,000 in wages for the carpenters who construct windows for special orders and add additional sealants, as well as $20,000 in materials. Adding these makes the total job cost $100,000. Professionals combine job and process costs to arrive at a total operation cost of $285,000 for the month.


What is the difference between operation costing and process costing?

How to calculate operation costing
  1. Evaluate process costing. Finding out how much it costs a business to produce a product in large quantities is the first step in calculating operation costs.
  2. Determine job costing. …
  3. Find the sum of all operation costs. …
  4. Assess totals for each process.

What are the methods of operating costing?

The basic features of operating costing are presented below.
  • Uniform service is provided to all the customers.
  • The costs are classified into fixed and variable.
  • To determine the cost of service and the unit cost of service, the fixed and variable cost classification is required.

Where is operating costing used?

In industries where the products are all essentially the same, like the brick or cement industries, process costing is employed. Contrarily, operational costing is utilized in industries where the products are similar but may differ slightly in terms of the parts or the quality of the materials.

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