**The basic formula to calculate financial value added for a product or service is:**

- Value added = Selling price of a product or service − the cost to produce the product or service.
- GVA = GDP + SP – TP.
- EVA = NOPAT − (CE ∗ WACC)
- MVA = V − K.
- CVA = Gross cash flow − economic depreciation − capital charge.

## Calculating Value Added

## Ways to create value added

Value addition encourages customers to make purchases and boosts a business’s bottom line. There are numerous ways for businesses to gain a competitive edge and increase the perceived value of their products, including:

## What is value added?

There are two different ways of understanding value added:

The difference between the cost to produce a good or service and the price that good or service is sold for is known as the financial value added. The following equation can be used to determine the financial value added for a good or service:

Value added is calculated as the difference between the selling price of a good or service and its production costs.

For example, if a pair of boots sells for $57. 99 but costs $20. 47 to produce, then the financial value added is $37. 52.

Perceived value added factors into the price of a product. Companies set the price of a product based on what consumers are willing to pay rather than on the actual cost to produce the good. Perceived value added can be tangible or intangible. For instance, a business may provide an accessory with a product to encourage a customer to select it over a rival’s offering.

Companies can raise product prices without losing sales by using strategic value-added enhancements, which then results in higher revenue for the business.

## Types of value added and their formulas

Depending on what a company is attempting to calculate, there are more sophisticated methods of calculating value added that companies use in various situations. The most typical value added types and their corresponding formulas are listed below:

**Gross value added**

The economic contributions of goods or services produced in a region, industry, or sector are measured by the term “gross value added” (GVA). The GVA calculates the quantity of goods or services produced in a region and deducts the cost of the raw materials used in their production. Taxes and subsidies have an effect on GDP’s gross value added (GVA), so they are taken into account in this calculation.

The formula for GVA is:

GVA = GDP + SP – TP

Where the variables are:

SP = Subsidies on products

TP = Taxes on products

**Economic value added**

The incremental difference between a company’s cost of capital and rate of return is used to calculate its economic value added (EVA), which is a measure of its financial performance. EVA is a tool used by experts to assess how much value a company generates from the money invested in it. Since it determines a company’s true economic profit, businesses also refer to it as economic profit.

Companies with a lot of assets and businesses with intangible assets respond to this formula the best. A negative EVA indicates that the company is not making money from its investments, and a positive EVA indicates that the company is making money from its investments.

The formula for EVA is:

EVA = NOPAT − (CE ∗ WACC)

Where the variables are:

NOPAT = Net operating profit after taxes

CE = Capital employed or cash invested

WACC = Weighted average cost of capital

**Market value added**

Market value added (MVA) is the sum of the capital investments made by all investors, including shareholders and debt holders, and the company’s market value. MVA can demonstrate a business’ ability to sustainably increase shareholder value.

A high MVA indicates that management has increased investors’ capital with strong operational capabilities, while a low MVA indicates that management’s investments and actions have decreased the value of investors’ capital. A low MVA indicates that management has reduced the value of investors’ capital. The MVA formula determines the total market value of any capital claims, equity, and debt.

The formula for MVA is:

MVA = V − K

Where the variables are:

V = the market value including equity and debt

K = total amount of capital invested

**Cash value added**

The amount of cash that a business can generate through its operations above and beyond its cost of capital is measured by its cash value added (CVA). Investors can see from a company’s CVA how well it can produce cash and liquid profits from one financial period to the next. The CVA formula is typically used by professionals who have a specialized interest in and knowledge of CVA. There are two ways to calculate CVA—direct and indirect.

The CVA direct formula is:

CVA is made up of capital charge, economic depreciation, and gross cash flow.

Where the variables are:

Gross cash flow is calculated as adjusted profit plus interest and depreciation.

Economic depreciation = Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)

Capital charge = cost of capital ∗ gross investment

The CVA indirect formula is:

CVA = (CFROI − cost of capital) ∗ gross investment

Where the variables are:

The formula for calculating CFROI is (gross cash flow minus economic depreciation) gross investment.

Gross investment = net current assets + historical initial cost

## How to calculate value added

Depending on the formula you use and the data you have available, you can calculate value added in a variety of different ways. However, all of the formulas use the same general methodology to determine value added.

**1. Determine which formula to use**

Think about the information you want to know, choose the formula that will give it to you, and collect data for the variables. For instance, to determine the MVA for your business, you will need to compile the total amount of capital invested as well as the market value of your business, which includes equity and debt.

**2. Follow the formula**

Replace the information in the formula with the information you have using the formula you selected. For instance, if the formula is MVA = V K, then substitute your market value, which includes equity and debt, for V, and your total amount of capital invested for K. Your equation might resemble this: MVA = $12 million minus $8 million.

**3. Calculate the formula**

Do the mathematical operations specified in the formula once you’ve entered your own values into it. Using MVA = $12,000,000 $8,000,000, you will deduct $12,000,000 from $8,000,000 to get a difference of $4,000,000. Your MVA, or market value added, is $4 million as a result.

## Example of calculating value added

You can use the steps below to determine your company’s economic value added:

**1. Gather information**

Examine the EVA formula and compile the NOPAT, CE, and WACC data for your business. To determine a total value for each of these items, you might need to conduct some of your own calculations. For the purposes of this example, your company’s NOPAT is $70,000, CE is $30,000, and WACC is 8. 53%.

The EVA formula is:

EVA = NOPAT − (CE ∗ WACC)

Where:

NOPAT = Net operating profit after taxes

CE = Capital employed or cash invested

WACC = Weighted average cost of capital

**2. Substitute**

Now that you have all the data about your business to incorporate into the formula, replace the values therein with those of your business. For example:

The formula EVA = NOPAT (CE WACC) is changed to EVA = $70,000 ($30,000 8) 53%).

**3. Calculate**

Calculate the formula to obtain a total using the information about your company.

Start with the formula:

EVA = $70,000 − ($30,000 ∗ 8.53%)

Multiply the values in the parenthesis:

EVA = $70,000 − ($2,559)

Subtract the remaining values:

EVA = $67,441

**4. Analyze**

Use your company’s EVA to assess its financial performance now that you are aware of it. Keep in mind that a positive EVA indicates that the company is making money from its investments, while a negative EVA indicates that the company is losing money from its investments. In this case, your company produced a positive value, demonstrating that it is getting value from the money it invested.

## FAQ

**What is value added example?**

The price that consumers are willing to pay for a product can rise as a result of the addition of value. An example of a value-added feature would be providing a year of free technical support with a new computer. Additionally, people can add value to the services they provide by entering the workforce with advanced skills, for example.

**How do you calculate value added in macroeconomics?**

It gauges the entire economic output of all goods and services over a specific time period. Three methods can be used to calculate it: the value-added method (GDP = VOGS – IC), the income method (GDP = W + R + i + P +IBT + D), and the expenditure method (GDP = C + I + G + NX).

**How do you find the sum of value added?**

Thus, value added is determined by subtracting the cost of goods and services a company purchases from other businesses from its gross receipts. Wages, salaries, interest, depreciation, rent, taxes, and profit are all included in value added.

**How do you calculate value added to a firm?**

Thus, value added is determined by subtracting the cost of goods and services a company purchases from other businesses from its gross receipts. Wages, salaries, interest, depreciation, rent, taxes, and profit are all included in value added.