Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis (With Formula and Example)

Cost Volume Profit (CVP) Analysis, also known as break-even

The break-even point (BEP) in economics, business—and specifically cost accounting—is the point at which total cost and total revenue are equal, i.e. “even”. There is no net loss or gain, and one has “broken even”, though opportunity costs have been paid and capital has received the risk-adjusted, expected return. › wiki › Break-e…

analysis, is a financial planning tool that leaders use when determining short-term strategies for their business. This conveys to business decision-makers the effects of changes in selling price, costs, and volume on profits (in the short term).

Cost Volume Profit Analysis (CVP): calculating the Break Even Point

How to calculate a cost-volume-profit analysis

The steps to take in order to calculate a cost-volume-profit analysis are as follows:

1. Calculate the sum of fixed costs

The following formula can be used to determine the total fixed costs:

Total production costs = Fixed costs – (Variable cost per unit x Number of units produced)

2. Determine the selling price of the product

Calculate your company’s net sales, which are the proceeds from product sales less discounts, allowances, and returns. To calculate the contribution margin per unit, multiply net sales by the total variable costs. Divide the total net sales by the total variable costs, then multiply the result by the quantity of units produced. For instance, if you produced 200 lamps for $8,000 in variable costs and $13,000 in net sales, your contribution margin would be $5,000, or $25 per unit.

Add the unit contribution margin and the unit variable cost. This is the selling price per unit. For instance, a frying pan’s selling price per unit would be $45 if its variable cost per unit was $30 and its contribution margin was $15.

3. Calculate the variable cost per unit

Variable costs change. When you produce more of your product, for instance, your variable costs rise. However, your variable costs decline as you produce less of your product. Evaluate the following costs to find the variable costs:

The variable cost per unit is calculated by adding these expenses together. For instance, the manufacturer of socks might claim that it costs them $10 in direct materials, $10 in direct labor, and $20 in overhead to produce one pair of socks. The total of direct material, direct labor, and variable manufacturing overhead results in a variable cost per unit of $40.

4. Calculate the contribution margin and contribution margin ratio

Unit selling price minus variable costs per unit equals contribution margin.

Divide the contribution margin by the unit selling price to obtain the contribution margin ratio. Here is the formula:

Contribution margin / Unit selling price = Contribution margin ratio

5. Perform the cost-volume-profit analysis

Use your previous calculations to conduct the cost-volume-profit analysis. You can calculate your CVP analysis using a variety of formulas to determine how many units you need to sell in order to make the desired profits. A common formula is the break-even sales volume formula:

Break-even sales volume = Fixed costs / (Price – Variable costs)

What is cost-volume-profit analysis?

Businesses use the cost-volume-profit formula to determine how many units of a product they must sell to make a profit or break even. Businesses use this formula to determine how changes in sales volume, fixed costs, and variable costs can affect a business’s profitability. Several equations for price, cost, and other variables are used to run a CVP analysis, and these equations are then plotted out on an economic graph.

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The CVP break-even sales volume formula is:

Break-even sales volume = FC / CM


FC = Fixed costs

Sales revenue minus all variable costs equals CM, or contribution margin per unit.

Add a target profit per unit to the fixed-cost part of the formula to determine a company’s target sales volume.

What assumptions does CVP analysis make?

The presumptions that CVP makes contribute to its dependability, such as:

What are the components of CVP analysis?

The CVP analysis contains different components, which involve various calculations. These components are:

Example cost-volume-profit analysis

An illustration of how to perform a cost-volume-profit analysis is given below:

The fixed costs for Gregs Socks LLC are $7,000 per month. Marketing, rent, insurance, salaries, and raw materials are among the fixed expenses. It costs $2. Each pair of socks costs $65 to produce and $8 to sell, generating a $5 profit. 35 for each pair. Using the common formula, heres the cost-volume-profit analysis:

Break-even sales volume = Fixed costs / (Price – Variable costs)

$7,000 / ($8.00 – $5.35) = 2,641.51

In order to reach the break-even point of $7,000, Gregs Socks LLC must sell a minimum of 2,642 pairs of socks each month.

Advantages of using CVP analysis

You can benefit from the cost-volume-profit analysis to aid in your business decision-making. It is a useful technique for assisting accountants in making choices that will aid in future operations. Some advantages of using CVP analysis include:


What are the 3 elements of CVP analysis?

How to perform a cost volume profit analysis (CVP) analysis
  1. Sum fixed costs. Tally your company’s fixed costs: …
  2. Determine the product’s selling price. …
  3. Calculate the variable cost per unit. …
  4. Calculate the unit CM and CM ratio. …
  5. Complete the CVP analysis.

How do you calculate cost-volume-profit analysis?

Finding out how changes in variable and fixed costs will impact profits is the goal of a CVP analysis. Cost, sales volume, and price are the three primary components of a cost-volume-profit analysis. A CVP analysis looks at how these elements influence profit.

What are the 4 assumptions of CVP analysis?

Profit = revenue – costs is the key CVP formula. Naturally, you must understand how to calculate your revenue in order to use this formula: (retail price x number of units). Additionally, you must understand how to calculate your costs: fixed costs plus (unit variable cost times the number of units).

Why is cost-volume-profit analysis?

(i) Fixed and variable expenses can be separated out for all costs. (ii) Costs and revenues exhibit linear behavior across the activity range under consideration. (iii) The only factor affecting costs and revenues is volume. (iv) The technology, production methods and efficiency remain unchanged.

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