What Are Deming’s 14 Points for Management?

Deming’s 14 Points on Quality Management, or the Deming Model of Quality Management, a core concept on implementing total quality management (TQM), is a set of management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity.

Deming’s 14 Points
  • Create a constant purpose toward improvement. Plan for quality in the long term. …
  • Adopt the new philosophy. …
  • Stop depending on inspections. …
  • Use a single supplier for any one item. …
  • Improve constantly and forever. …
  • Use training on the job. …
  • Implement leadership. …
  • Eliminate fear.

W. Edwards Deming: The 14 Points

What are Deming’s 14 points for management?

Demings 14 points for management is a type of total quality management that leaders can use to help make their business more productive. Many companies have used these 14 points for management since the 1940s.

Deming’s 14 points for management

Deming Here are the 14 points that you might be able to use to improve your management style:

1. Keep your goals consistent

Demings first point is “Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.” This means that it is important for leaders to remember their long-term business objectives when making day-to-day decisions. Keeping the end goal in mind can help improve overall products and services.

2. Keep an open mind

Deming worked with Japan on economic matters after WWII. His second point is inspired by this experience and states, “Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change.”

When he uses the word “Western,” he is referring to the general category of locations including Europe, the Americas and Canada. This point means that it is important for managers to prioritize the well-being of employees and minimize mistakes and defects in production.

3. Fix problems before they start

The third point in Demings system is, “Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place.” This means that it is usually better to improve the production process than to fix problems later, according to Deming. This point emphasizes Demings belief that success should be built into every step of the production process.

4. Think about many factors when purchasing

Demings fourth point is, “End the practice of awarding business based on the price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust.”

When business leaders make decisions about suppliers, they sometimes prioritize the upfront cost over quality, according to Deming. In this point, Deming advises management to think not only about cost but also about the quality of the product they are purchasing. He states that is also better to use one supplier for a particular item to minimize variation in the quality of that part.

5. Reflect frequently

For his fifth point, Deming wrote, “Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs.” This means that, according to Deming, businesses should consistently evaluate and improve their processes from supplier to services. This is one way to make operations less expensive.

6. Prioritize training

Demings sixth point reads, “Institute training on the job.” The more a manager knows about a businesss production processes and suppliers, the more efficiently and effectively they can lead business operations. This point emphasizes the value Deming placed on high-quality training.

7. Develop leadership

Leadership and management is the focus of Demings seventh point, which is, “Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management needs an overhaul, as well as supervision of production workers.”

Deming wanted management to feel empowered to make good business decisions that improve the production process. This point shows the difference between supervision and leadership according to Deming and can help leaders make meaningful decisions.

8. Establish a culture of confidence

For his eighth point, Deming wrote, “Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company.” This means that employees who may be afraid of losing job security are often less effective on the job, according to Deming. Fearful employees, he states, are less likely to innovate. Deming encourages business leaders to openly accept new knowledge, even if it exposes potential business shortcomings.

9. Collaborate widely and effectively

Demings ninth point emphasizes collaboration, stating, “Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service.”

Working as a team across departments can help a business function more efficiently and productively. Deming suggests that it is important for people in different roles to be sure their high-quality work is actually benefiting the business as a whole.

10. Moderate expectations of employees

Demings tenth point specifically suggests to “Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the workforce.”

Deming suggests that most production problems have more to do with flawed processes than flawed employees. An employee that is made to feel responsible for structural problems can become resentful, according to Deming, which can affect productivity.

11. Lead qualitatively, rather than quantitatively

The eleventh of Demings points has two parts, and reads, “a. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Substitute leadership. b. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Substitute leadership.” This means that, according to Deming, the pride of good workmanship is more motivating for employees than quotas or incentives. He believed that good leadership can lead to better quality and more productive work by employees.

According to this point, it isnt necessary to provide employees with numerical goals, such as a percentage increase in profits over a set amount of time. In this point, he explains his perspective that a stable process can provide better and more consistent returns than goals that focus solely on final data.

12. Remove barriers that deprive people of their right to pride of workmanship

Demings twelfth point also has two parts, stating, “a. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. b. Remove barriers that rob people in management and the engineering of their right to pride of workmanship. This means, inter alia, abolishment of the annual or merit rating and management by objective.”

This two-part point means that allowing employees to feel a sense of ownership in their role and pride in the quality of their work can increase productivity. Deming suggests that employees should be thought of as less of a commodity and more like stable personnel.

Managers can sometimes be more motivated to achieve measurable goals rather than holistically improving the production process, Deming states, and this can harm productivity. Deming suggests using subjective data instead to help leaders improve the business from within.

13. Seek education and improvement

Demings thirteenth point reflects his appreciation for high-quality training as well. This point reads, “Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.” This means that everyone in the company should have access to education and be encouraged to improve themselves and their work.

14. Every employee matters

The final of Demings 14 points states, “Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybodys job.” Deming suggests that change in business processes is most effective when everyone at every level of the organization is involved. This means he believed every employee should have an opportunity to think creatively and implement change, with the unified goal of improving the product or experience for the customer.


Why did Deming create the 14 points?

Edwards Deming offered 14 key principles for management to follow to significantly improve the effectiveness of a business or organization. The principles (points) were first presented in his book Out of the Crisis.

What is Deming’s philosophy?

The Deming Philosophy, known as Dr. Deming’s “theory of management” and later his “System of Profound Knowledge,” represents a holistic approach to leadership and management. The philosophy brings together an understanding of variation, theory of knowledge, psychology and appreciation for a system.

Which of the following is one of Deming’s 14 points for management?

The 14 points Deming developed are: Create constancy of purpose: Businesses should strive for continuous improvement, look for long-term solutions, and work to predict and prepare for the future. Adopt the new philosophy: Focus on quality! Focus the organization on quality and meeting the needs of the customer first.

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