guru 99 selenium interview questions

Basic Selenium Interview Questions for Freshers

Selenium is a suite of tools for automated web testing. It is composed of

  • Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) : It is a tool for recording and playing back. It is a firefox plugin
  • WebDriver and RC: It provide the APIs for a variety of languages like Java, .NET, PHP, etc. With most of the browsers Webdriver and RC works.
  • Grid: With the help of Grid you can distribute tests on multiple machines so that test can be run parallel which helps in cutting down the time required for running in browser test suites
  • Web Testing tools Selenium RC and WebDriver are consolidated in single tool in Selenium 2.0

    guru 99 selenium interview questions

    Selenium 3.0 is the latest version of Selenium. It has released 2 beta versions of selenium 3.0 with few of the below changes:

    Here are few new features added to Selenium 3.0

    Beta 1 updates Beta 2 updates (Only for Java)
    • Minimum Java version is now 8+
    • System property webdriver.gecko.driver now forces the server in marionette or legacy firefox driver mode, ignoring any related Desired Capability
    • It will support for Firefox Via Mozilla’s geckodriver
    • Grid fixes NPE’s on registration when -browser not specified
    • Support for Edge is provided by MS
    • It now supports Safari on MacOS via Apple’s own Safari driver
    • Update GeckoDriver –port argument in all bindings

    In Selenium every object or control in a web page is referred as an elements, there are different ways to find an element in a web page they are

  • ID
  • Name
  • Tag
  • Attribute
  • CSS
  • Linktext
  • PartialLink Text
  • Xpath etc
  • For web based application testing selenium can be used

    The test types can be supported are

    a) Functional, Learn More about Functional Testing.

    For post release validation with continuous integration automation tool could be used

    Assertion is used as a verification point. It verifies that the state of the application conforms to what is expected. The types of assertion are “assert” , “verify” and “waitFor”.

    X-Path is used to find the WebElement in web pages. It is also useful in identifying the dynamic elements.

    Refer Complete Guide on XPath

  • Single slash ( / ) start selection from the document node
  • It allows you to create ‘absolute’ path expressions
  • Double slash ( // ) start selection matching anywhere in the document
  • It enables to create ‘relative’ path expressions
  • Technical challenges with Selenium are

  • Selenium supports only web based applications
  • It does not support the Bitmap comparison
  • For any reporting related capabilities have to depend on third party tools
  • No vendor support for tool compared to commercial tools like HP UFT
  • As there is no object repository concept in Selenium, maintainability of objects becomes difficult
  • TypeKeys() will trigger JavaScript event in most of the cases whereas .type() won’t. Type key populates the value attribute using JavaScript whereas .typekeys() emulates like actual user typing

    Assert: Assert allows to check whether an element is on the page or not. The test will stop on the step failed, if the asserted element is not available. In other words, the test will terminated at the point where check fails.

    Verify: Verify command will check whether the element is on the page, if it is not then the test will carry on executing. In verification, all the commands are going to run guaranteed even if any of test fails.

    In JAVA a special form of syntactic meta-data can be added to Java source code, this is know as Annotations. Variables, parameters, packages, methods and classes are annotated some of the Junit annotations which can be useful are

  • Test
  • Before
  • After
  • Ignore
  • BeforeClass
  • AfterClass
  • RunWith
  • To click on specific part of element, you would need to use clickAT command. ClickAt command accepts element locator and x, y co-ordinates as arguments-

  • It supports C#, PHP, Java, Perl, Phython
  • It supports different OS like Windows, Linux and Mac OS
  • It has got powerful methods to locate elements (Xpath, DOM , CSS)
  • It has highly developer community supported by Google
  • Selenium is more popular than QTP as

  • Selenium is an open source whereas QTP is a commercial tool
  • Selenium is used specially for testing web based applications while QTP can be used for testing client server application also
  • Selenium supports Firefox, IE, Opera, Safari on operating systems like Windows, Mac, Linux etc. however QTP is limited to Internet Explorer on Windows.
  • Selenium supports many programming languages like Ruby, Perl, Python whereas QTP supports only VB script
  • Advanced Selenium Automation Testing Interview Questions for 3/5/10 Years Experience

    Following are the top Selenium interview questions for experience candidates:

    Four parameters that you have to pass in Selenium are

  • Host
  • Port Number
  • Browser
  • URL
  • Both will delay the speed of execution.

    Thread.sleep () : It will stop the current (java) thread for the specified period of time. Its done only once

  • It takes a single argument in integer format
  • Ex: thread.sleep(2000)- It will wait for 2 seconds

  • It waits only once at the command given at sleep
  • SetSpeed () : For specific amount of time it will stop the execution for every selenium command.

  • It takes a single argument in integer format
  • Ex: selenium.setSpeed(“2000”)- It will wait for 2 seconds

  • Runs each command after setSpeed delay by the number of milliseconds mentioned in set Speed
  • This command is useful for demonstration purpose or if you are using a slow web application

    The “Same Origin Policy” is introduced for security reason, and it ensures that content of your site will never be accessible by a script from another site. As per the policy, any code loaded within the browser can only operate within that website’s domain.

    To avoid “Same Origin Policy” proxy injection method is used, in proxy injection mode the Selenium Server acts as a client configured HTTP proxy , which sits between the browser and application under test and then masks the AUT under a fictional URL

    The purpose of heightened privileges is similar to Proxy Injection, allows websites to do something that are not commonly permitted. The key difference is that the browsers are launced in a special mode called heightened privileges. By using these browser mode, Selenium core can open the AUT directly and also read/write its content without passing the whole AUT through the Selenium RC server.

    You can use “submit” method on element to submit form-

    Alternatively you can use click method on the element which does form submission

    TestNG is a testing framework based on JUnit and NUnit to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from Unit Testing to Integration Testing. And the functionality which makes it efficient testing framework are

  • Support for annotations
  • Support for data-driven testing
  • Flexible test configuration
  • Ability to re-execute failed test cases
  • Implicit Wait: Sets a timeout for all successive Web Element searches. For the specified amount of time it will try looking for element again and again before throwing a NoSuchElementException. It waits for elements to show up.

    Explicit Wait : It is a one-timer, used for a particular search.

    This will return list of frames.

    You will need to switch to each and every frame and search for locator which we want.

    find element ():

    It finds the first element within the current page using the given “locating mechanism”. It returns a single WebElement

    findElements () : Using the given “locating mechanism” find all the elements within the current page. It returns a list of web elements.

    The JUnits annotation linked with Selenium are

  • @Before public void method() – It will perform the method () before each test, this method can prepare the test
  • @Test public void method() – Annotations @Test identifies that this method is a test method environment
  • @After public void method()- To execute a method before this annotation is used, test method must start with [email protected]
  • Datadriven framework: In this framework, the test data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts, while Test Case logic resides in Test Scripts. Test data is read from the external files ( Excel Files) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used for both for input values and for verification values.

    Keyworddriven framework: The keyword driven frameworks requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation. In a keyword driven test, the functionality of the application under test is documented in a table as well as step by step instructions for each test.

    Pass the username and password with url

    //get test from element and stored in text variable

    Silk Test Tool Selenium Test Tool
    • Borland Silk test is not a free testing tool
    • Selenium is completely free test automation tool
    • Silk test supports only Internet Explorer and Firefox
    • Selenium supports many browsers like Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, Opera and so on
    • Silk test uses test scripting language
    • Selenium suite has the flexibility to use many languages like Java, Ruby,Perl and so on
    • Silk test can be used for client server applications
    • Selenium can be used for only web application

    An object repository is an essential entity in any UI automations which allows a tester to store all object that will be used in the scripts in one or more centralized locations rather than scattered all over the test scripts.

    Selenium Grid sent the tests to the hub. These tests are redirected to Selenium Webdriver, which launch the browser and run the test. With entire test suite, it allows for running tests in parallel.

    Yes. But not as effectively as a dedicated Performance Testing tool like Loadrunner.

  • If you are using Selenium-WebDriver, you don’t need the Selenium Server as it is using totally different technology
  • Selenium Server provides Selenium RC functionality which is used for Selenium 1.0 backwards compatibility
  • Selenium Web driver makes direct calls to browser using each browsers native support for automation, while Selenium RC requires selenium server to inject Javascript into the browser
  • WebDriver should be used when requiring improvement support for

  • Handling multiple frames, pop ups , multiple browser windows and alerts
  • Page navigation and drag & drop
  • Ajax based UI elements
  • Multi browser testing including improved functionality for browser not well supported by Selenium 1.0
  • Major limitation of injecting capabilities is that “findElement” command may not work as expected.

    To find the broken s in a page using Selenium web driver is

  • Get XPath and get all the links in the page using tag name
  • In the page click on each and every link
  • Look for 404/500 in the target page title
  • To handle colors in web driver you can use

    Use getCssValue(arg0) function to get the colors by sending ‘color’ string as an argument

    You can use following command to store a value which is text box using web driver

    To switch between frames webdrivers [ driver.switchTo().frame() ] method takes one of the three possible arguments

  • A number: It selects the number by its (zero-based) index
  • A name or ID: Select a frame by its name or ID
  • Previously found WebElement: Using its previously located WebElement select a frame
  • The 5 different exceptions you had in Selenium web drivers are

  • WebDriverException
  • NoAlertPresentException
  • NoSuchWindowException
  • NoSuchElementException
  • TimeoutException
  • You can perform double click by using

  • Syntax- Actions act = new Actions (driver);
  • act.doubleClick(webelement);
  • You can use “type”command to type in a file input box of upload file. Then, you have to use “Robot” class in JAVA to make file upload work.

    HTMLUnit Driver implementation is fastest, HTMLUnitDriver does not execute tests on browser but plain http request, which is far quick than launching a browser and executing tests

    To bring control on HTML frame you can use “SwitchTo” frame method-

    To specify a frame you can use index number

    This would bring control on frame named- “frameName” of the 4th sub frame names “parentFrame”

    getwindowhandles(): It is used to get the address of all the open browser and its return type is Set

    getwindowhandle(): It is used to get the address of the current browser where the control is and return type is string

    To switch back from a frame use method defaultContent()

    Different types of locators are

  • By.tagName()
  • By.className()
  • By.linkText()
  • By.partialLinkText()
  • By.xpath
  • By.cssSelector()
  • In order to display a constant string, command can be used is echo
  • If order to display the value of a variable you can use command like echo ${variable name>>
  • Above is using PHP. If you are using Java, replace echo with System.out.println

    Recovery scenarios depends upon the programming language you use. If you are using Java then you can use exception handling to overcome same. By using “Try Catch Block” within your Selenium WebDriver Java tests

    To iterate through options in test script you can loop features of the programming language, for example to type different test data in a text box you can use “for” loop in Java

    // test data collection in an array

    String[ ] testData = { “test1” , “test2” , “test3” } ;

    // iterate through each test data

    For (string s: test data) { selenium.type ( “elementLocator”, testData) ; }

  • Junit: With the help of ANT
  • TestNG: Using inbuilt default.html to get the HTML report. Also XST reports from ANT, Selenium, Testng combinations
  • Using our own customized reports using XSL jar for converting XML content to HTML
  • To create html test report there are three ways

  • TestNG: Using inbuilt default.html to get the HTML report. Also XLST reports from ANT, Selenium, TestNG combination
  • JUnit: With the help of ANT
  • Using our own customized reports using XSL jar for converting XML content to HTML
  • In Selenium IDE to insert a break point

  • Select “Toggle break point” by right click on the command in Selenium IDE
  • Press “B” on the keyboard and select the command in Selenium IDE
  • Multiple break points can be set in Selenium IDE
  • Insert a break point from the location from where you want to execute test step by step
  • Run the test case
  • At the given break point execution will be paused
  • To continue with the next statement click on the blue button
  • Click on the “Run” button to continue executing all the commands at a time
  • Selenese is a selenium set of command which are used for running the test

    There are three types of Selenese

  • Actions: It is used for performing the operations and interactions with the target elements
  • Assertions: It is used as a check points
  • Accessors: It is used for storing the values in a variable
  • The limitations of Selenium IDE

  • Exceptional handling is not present
  • Selenium IDE uses only HTML languages
  • External databases reading is not possible with IDE
  • Reading from the external files like .txt, .xls is not possible
  • Conditional or branching statements execution like if,else, select statements is not possible
  • Either Selenium IDE can be opened as a pop up window or in side bar

    In selenium there are mainly 4 locators that are used

  • X-path locators
  • Css locators
  • Html id
  • Html name
  • In Selenium IDE you can generate random numbers by using Java Script

    You can use the format option of Selenium IDE to convert tests into another programming language

    You can use the “storeTable” command

    Example store text from cell 0,2 from an html table

  • When a locator has changed and Selenium IDE cannot locate the element
  • When element Selenium IDE waiting to access did not appear on the web page and the operation timed out
  • When element Selenium IDE was trying to access was not created
  • Insert a break point from the location where you want to execute step by step
  • Run the test case
  • At the given break point execution will be paused
  • To continues with the next step click on the Blue button
  • To run commands at a time click on run button
  • From Selenium IDE single line command can be executed in two ways

  • Select “Execute this command” by right clicking on the command in Selenium IDE
  • Press “X” key on the keyboard after selecting the command in Selenium IDE
  • In Selenium IDE source view shows your script in XML format

    In two ways selenium IDE can be set

  • Press “S” key on the keyboard and select the command in Selenium IDE
  • In Seleniun IDE right click on the command and the select “Set / Clear Start Point”
  • To test the locator one can use “Find Button” of Selenium IDE, as you click on it, you would see on screen an element being highlighted provided your element locator is right or or else an error message will be displayed

    A regular expression is a special text string used for describing a search pattern. In Selenium IDE regular expression can be used with the keyword- regexp: as a prefix to the value and patterns needs to be included for the expected values.

    If you want to “extend” the defualt functionality provided by Selenium Function Library , you can create a Core Extension. They are also called “User Extension”. You can even download ready-made Core Extension created by other Selenium enthusiats.

    We can use the command selectWindow to switch between windows. This command uses the title of Windows to identify which window to switch to.

    You can use verifyElementPositionLeft & verifyElementPositionTop. It does a pixel comparison of the position of the element from the Left and Top of page respectively

    You can use the storeAlert command which will fetch the message of the alert pop up and store it in a variable.

    Selenium IDE have limitations in terms of browser support and language support. By using Selenium RC limitation can be diminished.

  • On different platforms and different web browser for automating web application selenium RC is used with languages like Java, C#, Perl, Python
  • Selenium RC is a java based and using any language it can interact with the web application
  • Using server you can bypass the restriction and run your automation script running against any web application
  • Selenium IDE does not directly support many functions like condition statements, Iteration, logging and reporting of test results, unexpected error handling and so on as IDE supports only HTML language. To handle such issues Selenium RC is used it supports the language like Perl, Ruby, Python, PHP using these languages we can write the program to achieve the IDE issues.

    The main difference between Selenium RC and Webdriver is that, selenium RC injects javascript function into browsers when the page is loaded. On the other hand, Selenium Webdriver drives the browser using browsers built in support

  • Can read or write data from/ to .xls, .txt, etc
  • It can handle dynamic objects and Ajax based UI elements
  • Loops and conditions can be used for better performance and flexibility
  • Support many Programming languages and Operating Systems
  • For any JAVA script enabled browser Selenium RC can be used
  • A collection of libraries and classes is known as Framework and they are helpful when testers has to automate test cases. NUnit, JUnit, TestNG, Bromine, RSpec, unittest are some of the frameworks available in RC .

    To handle pop-ups in RC , using selectWindow method, pop-up window will be selected and windowFocus method will let the control from current window to pop-up windows and perform actions according to script

    Apart from “same origin policy” restriction from js, Selenium is also restricted from exercising anything that is outside browser.

    Yes, it is possible when you are not using JAVA testing framework. Instead of using Java testing framework if you are using java client driver of selenium then TestNG allows you to do this. By using “parallel=test” attribute you can set tests to be executed in parallel and can define two different tests, each using different browser.

    If you want full automation against different server and client platforms, You need a way to invoke the tests from a command line process, reports that tells you what happened and flexibility in how you create your test suites. TestNG gives that flexibility.

    To capture server side log in Selenium Server, you can use command

  • java –jar .jar –log selenium.log
  • You can run Selenium server on java-jar selenium-server.jar-port other than its default port

    At predefined time selenium grid hub keeps polling all RC slaves to make sure it is available for testing. The deciding parameter is called “remoteControlPollingIntervalSeconds” and is defined in “grid_configuration.yml”file

    To handle network latency you can use driver.manage.pageloadingtime for network latency

    To enter values onto text boxes we can use command sendkeys()

    To identify an object using Selenium you can use

    isElementPresent takes a locator as the argument and if found returns a Boolean

  • Breakpoints: When you implement a breakpoint in your code, the execution will stop right there. This helps you to verify that your code is working as expected.
  • StartpointsStartpoint indicates the point from where the execution should begin. Startpoint can be used when you want to run the testscript from the middle of the code or a breakpoint.
  • Few points that favor Python over Java to use with Selenium is,

  • Java programs tend to run slower compared to Python programs.
  • Java uses traditional braces to start and ends blocks, while Python uses indentation.
  • Java employs static typing, while Python is dynamically typed.
  • Python is simpler and more compact compared to Java.
  • The challenges faced in Handling Ajax Call in Selenium Webdriver are

  • Using “pause” command for handling Ajax call is not completely reliable. Long pause time makes the test unacceptably slow and increases the testing time. Instead, “waitforcondition” will be more helpful in testing Ajax applications.
  • It is difficult to assess the risk associated with particular Ajax applications
  • Given full freedom to developers to modify Ajax application makes the testing process challenging
  • Creating automated test request may be difficult for testing tools as such AJAX application often use different encoding or serialization technique to submit POST data.
  • Intellij is an IDE that helps you to write better and faster code for Selenium. Intellij can be used in the option to Java bean and Eclipse.

    You can customize TestNG report in two ways,

  • Using ITestListener Interface
  • Using IReporter Interface
  • To generate pdf reports, you need Java API IText.

    In Selenium WebDriver, Listeners “listen” to the event defined in the selenium script and behave accordingly. It allows customizing TestNG reports or logs. There are two main listeners i.e. WebDriver Listeners and TestNG Listeners.

    The types of Listeners in TestNG are,

  • IAnnotationTransformer
  • IAnnotationTransformer2
  • IConfigurable
  • IConfigurationListener
  • IExecutionListener
  • IHookable
  • IInvokedMethodListener
  • IInvokedMethodListener2
  • IMethodInterceptor
  • IReporter
  • ISuiteListener
  • ITestListener
  • The desired capability is a series of key/value pairs that stores the browser properties like browser name, browser version, the path of the browser driver in the system, etc. to determine the behavior of the browser at run time.

  • It can be used to configure the driver instance of Selenium WebDriver.
  • When you want to run the test cases on a different browser with different operating systems and versions.
  • For Database Testing in Selenium Webdriver, you need JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) API. It allows you to execute SQL statements.

    Selenium is designed to automate web-based applications on different browsers. But to handle window GUI and non-HTML popups in the application you need AutoIT. know more about How to use AutoIT with Selenium

    While working with Selenium, you need Session Handling. This is because, during test execution, the Selenium WebDriver has to interact with the browser all the time to execute given commands. At the time of execution, it is also possible that, before current execution completes, someone else starts execution of another script, in the same machine and in the same type of browser. So to avoid such situation you need Session Handling.

    The advantages of Using Git Hub for Selenium are

  • Multiple people when they work on the same project they can update project details and inform other team members simultaneously.
  • Jenkins can help you to build the project from the remote repository regularly. This helps you to keep track of failed builds.
  • Prep Up For your Job Interview!!! Go through Selenium Tutorial to be better prepared. Test your knowledge with Selenium Quiz

    This detailed Selenium with Java interview questions PDF will help you to clear the doubts about Selenium testing interview questions and will also help you to crack the interview.

    What are the limitations of Selenium testing?Â

  • Unavailability of reliable tech support: Since Selenium is an open-source tool, it does not have dedicated tech support to resolve the user queries.Â
  • Tests web applications only: Selenium needs to be integrated with third-party tools like Appium and TestNG to test desktop and mobile applications.
  • Limited support for testing.
  • No built-in reporting and test management facility: Selenium has to be integrated with tools like TestNG, or JUnit among others to facilitate test reporting and management.
  • May require the knowledge of programming languages: Selenium WebDriver expects the user to have some basic knowledge about programming.Â
  • guru 99 selenium interview questions

    Basic & Advanced Selenium WebDriver Interview Questions:

    No matter you are experienced or freshers, we have covered all levels based on the requests we got from our readers. Here we have covered Selenium Interview Questions asked in companies.


    What are the questions asked in Selenium interview?

    Beginner Level Selenium Interview Questions
    • What are the Selenium suite components? …
    • What are the limitations of Selenium testing? …
    • What are the testing types supported by Selenium? …
    • What is the difference between Selenium 2.0 and Selenium 3.0? …
    • What is the same-origin policy and how is it handled? …
    • What is Selenese?

    What is contextClick () used for?

    Move to Element: contextClick() method first performs mouseMove to the middle of the element location. This function performs the right click at the middle of the web element. Build: build() method is used to generate a composite action containing all actions.

    Can I learn Selenium in 10 days?

    2 Answers. It totally depends on you and on your interest and availability to spend time on the topic. There is a high-level schedule that you can follow I am mentioned below if you follow something like that you can learn selenium in max to max 4–5 week.

    Which feature is not supported by Selenium IDE?

    Selenium-IDE does not directly support:

    logging and reporting of test results. error handling, particularly unexpected errors. database testing. test case grouping.

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