Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a risk management tool used to evaluate and identify potential failures and their consequences. As a proactive process, FMEA emphasizes preventive measures and process optimization to reduce the likelihood of failures occurring. It is critical to any product development and manufacturing process, as it allows the identification and elimination of potential risks associated with production. By thoroughly evaluating the entire process, FMEA can be used to ensure that products are safe, reliable, and consistent. In this blog post, we’ll take a closer look at the FMEA definition and how it is used to reduce risks and improve product quality. We’ll explore the different types of FMEA, from Design FMEA (DFMEA) to Process FMEA (PFMEA). We’ll also discuss the key steps of the FMEA process, from identification of potential failure modes to the evaluation of risk and selection of preventive measures. By the
What is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis – FMEA? PM in Under 5
When to use FMEA
Following is a list of scenarios in which FMEA may be used:
To identify possible failures and assess the risk to the end user or process
During the design or development phases of a project, FMEA can be used to pinpoint potential failures and their underlying causes. The FMEA output can then be used to evaluate the risk of failure and determine whether any preventive or corrective measures are required to address a specific risk (or risks) at an early stage. FMEA is an effective tool for defect prevention because it can identify potential failure modes before they happen.
To identify methods that can reduce the probability of occurrence of a failure or mitigate its severity
For various systems and subsystems, FMEA is a technical risk management tool that aids in identifying the most important failure modes. An FMEA can evaluate the criticality and severity of failure, cost of occurrence, cause and frequency, and capability to detect. By taking into account probability, threat, and impact, you can conduct a systematic review using an objective, quantitative risk assessment technique to determine which failure modes are significant.
To prioritize and focus corrective actions on those failures that have the greatest effect on safety, reliability, or product performance
Through the use of FMEA, you can make sure that the greatest risks are first addressed. This is done by locating potential root causes of failure. To assess the severity of failures, a variety of tools are used, such as fault tree analysis, checklists, or audits. These tools can be used to find potential corrective or preventive actions to lessen the likelihood and severity of failures.
To get early involvement of all relevant disciplines in a project
In order to identify potential modes of failure for each design stage or process step using FMEA, all relevant disciplines within an organization, including manufacturing, quality assurance, and research and development, must participate. FMEA can be used as a process for team building that you can use to organize and coordinate activities between various teams. As a result of FMEA’s cross-functional nature, which involves personnel from all departments in the process of identifying potential failure modes, it offers an effective forum for departmental communication.
To track and monitor corrective actions taken over time
You can use FMEA to ensure that you meet any improvement goals in relation to lowering the likelihood of failure rates, increasing equipment availability rates, and identifying all failure consequences both during initial design and later in a product’s life cycle. The corrective actions that have been taken over time can be tracked and monitored using FMEA. This could offer an invaluable historical record of advancements made in terms of failure rates being reduced, reliability being increased, and customer satisfaction being attained.
What is FMEA?
A risk management technique called FMEA is used when creating, developing, and manufacturing a product or process. A Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) examines all possible ways that a system, subsystem, or component could malfunction. It is a methodical procedure for identifying potential flaws, defects, and failures in a product or process and then calculating the likelihood that they will occur. The FMEA offers specific, cost-effective, and widely applicable steps that, if taken, can lower the risk of failure.
What is the FMEA procedure?
Here is a description of a typical FMEA’s process:
1. Identify the product, process and/or system being reviewed
Identifying the system or product that you are evaluating is the first step in any FMEA Depending on the project or activity you are managing, this might apply. For instance, you might be conducting an FMEA on a particular process step, device, or system, or you might be reviewing all process failures that result in scrap or rework.
2. Understand each potential failure mode
List all potential failure modes for the project under consideration as the following step. Reviewing prior projects, reading about related projects created by other businesses, researching well-known trade journals and sector-specific websites can all help you pinpoint failure modes. You could review typical failures that your business might encounter.
You could also discover any previously unidentified potential modes of failure. This knowledge may assist you in choosing the types of failure modes to include in the FMEA because they are likely to be significant, common, or have a significant impact on the project.
3. Review and assess the severity of each failure mode
Then you can record each mode, including the frequency of occurrence, direct cost, or risk to life or property, and evaluate the seriousness of each type of failure. This includes any safety concerns, any regulatory requirements, and how it impacts the equipment or service’s end users. For instance, you might find that a specific failure mode is likely to occur frequently, incur high costs for the business, violate regulations, and possibly result in harm to clients or staff members.
4. Determine if you have addressed the failure mode in previous processes
You can now determine if earlier FMEAs contained this error/failure mode. To determine whether you have previously analyzed this failure, you can review your most recent and previous redesigns and maintenance procedures. If so, you could incorporate the mode in your FMEA and evaluate the severity of failure modes that weren’t previously considered significant by previous FMEAs but were present in the process.
5. Determine if you can prevent future failures
If so, you can decide what steps to correct in order to stop this failure mode from happening. You can also determine whether there is a good chance that this failure mode will happen again. If so, you can learn more about the precise preventive measures you can take, like design changes or adjustments to production or quality control procedures.
Example of a FMEA
Here is an illustration of an FMEA using a hypothetical business:
Among the industrial goods produced by Archibald Manufacturing are hydraulic jacks, hydraulic presses, hydraulic pumps, and hydraulic compressors. The H4400 pump is a novel kind of hydraulic pump that Archibald has created. This new model has an improved design that should outperform the previous one. Archibald has chosen to perform an FMEA on this new model of pump as part of its design process as part of this redesign. Before beginning production, Archibald performs an FMEA on the H4400 series of pumps to identify any potential failure modes.
They seek to ascertain which failure modes are most likely to occur, how frequently these modes might do so, what the potential consequences of the failure might be, and how they might avoid it. Additionally, the business wants to use this FMEA as a proactive measure to find any potential risks and issues that could have an impact on production. Archibald has tasked a group of specialists in manufacturing, design engineering, and safety engineering with reviewing all potential failure modes for this project as part of the FMEA process.