14 Types of Building Structure Components

When building a structure, it’s important to ensure that the components being used are of the highest quality. These components are the foundation of any successful structure and must be able to withstand the test of time. It is also important that they are built to the highest industry standards and are designed to maintain the integrity and safety of the structure. In this blog post, we will discuss the different components that are used to construct a structure, as well as the materials and techniques that are required to ensure that these components meet all industry standards. We will also look at the importance of proper design and installation for these components. Finally, we’ll discuss the different types of maintenance that may be necessary to keep these components functioning optimally over time. Read on to discover more about building structure components.

Structural Components of a Reinforced Concrete Building

What is a building structure component?

The structural elements of a building are what hold the building’s weight and any additional weight it might support while it is standing. Not all physical characteristics of a building are structure components. For instance, the wallpaper or an appliance are not structural elements of the building because they do not support weight loads.

You can find the same structure components in almost all types of buildings because the engineering behind them is largely the same. The superstructure, which is located above the ground, and the substructure, which is located below the ground, are two categories in which these structural elements fall.

14 building structure components

Here are the 14 most common building structure components:


The foundation is the lowest load-bearing part of a building. The first part to be constructed is typically the foundation, which is made of concrete. The foundation evenly disperses the weight of the structure on top onto the ground below it.

Common building issues, such as a cracking foundation or uneven load-bearing, can be avoided with a properly constructed foundation. Construction teams may research the behavior of the soil in the construction area to build the proper foundation that can work with the soil and prevent sinking because the success of a foundation depends on how well it transfers weight to the soil beneath it.


The part of the structure that is built directly on top of the foundation is called the plinth. Usually, it is a rectangular stone wall that runs along the outside dimensions of the building. To stop groundwater from entering the structure, the plinth raises the building’s floor to a few centimeters above the level of the surrounding soil. This element separates the superstructure of the rest of the building from the substructure of the foundation.

DPC or Damp Proof Course

A damp proof course is a waterproof material layer that prevents moisture from penetrating a structure and weakening its components. This layer typically goes on top of the foundation. A plinth serves as a DPC, but in the absence of one, you can use waterproof cement or asphalt. On top of this layer, you can erect the remainder of the building.

Plinth Beam

To support the weight of a wall that will be placed on top of it, a plinth beam is a beam that runs horizontally along the foundation from one side of the plinth to the other. Plinth beams can be concrete or stone.


The floor is a horizontal, flat surface that serves to support furniture and people. The DPC level is followed by flooring, which can be made out of a variety of materials. The goal of flooring is to give your structure a dry, sanitary foundation. The number of floors a building can have depends on its type. Basement floors are any levels outside the building that are lower than the soil level. Ground floors are those that are at or just above the outside soil level. Buildings with multiple levels above the ground number their floors according to how high they are in relation to the ground floor.


A slab is an element of a vertical base that serves as both a floor and a ceiling. In a one-story building, the slab is the roof. The slab is the floor of the story above it and the ceiling of the one below it in multi-story buildings. The slab vertically transmits the weight of the story above it to the walls and columns that support the building.


Walls are vertical structure components that support the roof. They also provide security and protection from outside weather. Depending on whether it is an interior or exterior wall, you can build one out of a variety of materials.

The perimeter of the building is lined with exterior walls that can offer privacy and weather and moisture protection for the interior. The design and spatial organization of the building’s interior are created by its interior walls. Some interior walls are required to support the weight of the roof, while others are only there to divide space.

Shear wall

A vertical component that has been strengthened to withstand earthquakes or storms is called a shear wall. They function by transferring extra pressure brought on by powerful winds or shaking from the vertical wall to the horizontal foundation, thereby providing the wall with additional support.


A column is a vertical load-bearing structure that connects the floor to the roof and supports the roof. Due to the fact that it is usually as thick as it is wide and is purposefully positioned within a structure to support weight, it does not offer privacy or protection from the elements.

If a column is large enough to support the weight of the roof and any additional weight you place on it, you can use it to support weight in place of a wall. If a column is not supporting any weight, you can still use it as a decorative element.


The roof is the uppermost structural element of a building. It offers protection from the elements for the remainder of the building. Depending on what is most appropriate for the local climate, you can build a flat or sloped roof out of a variety of materials. Other load-bearing structures support the roof’s weight. The roof primarily supports its own weight and any additional pressure brought on by the weather.


To get from one floor to another, a staircase is made up of a series of steps. Anybody standing on it as well as its own weight must be supported. When choosing the staircase’s design and material choices, you can take the available space into account.

Tie beam

To support the weight that the columns bear, a tie beam is positioned between them. These are typically employed to assist columns supporting high ceilings. Reinforcing excessively long columns is necessary to prevent them from buckling under the weight of the tall roof.


A lintel is a slab of metal or concrete that spans a wall opening, such as a window or doorway. The lintel supports the portion of the wall above the opening, distributing the weight to the sides of the wall that are stronger on either side and strengthening the wall above the opening where it is weak.


A sill is a section of the wall located beneath an opening, such as a window. To help support the weight of the window frame, you can strengthen the sill.


What are Building structural components?

Foundations, columns, girders, beams, supports, concrete slabs, roofs, and other structural members of the building are referred to as structural components. Exterior walls of the building that are outside of a plane that is the interior face of the window glass are also referred to as structural components.

What are the 4 main elements of a Building?

Apart from the foundation and plinth, the superstructure has several components, which we will discuss.
  • Figure 1: Basic structure of a building.
  • Figure 2: Plinth level.
  • Figure 3: Column Beam arrangement.
  • Figure 4: Chajja.

What are the two main structural components of a Building?

What are the structural components of a building
  • The main load-bearing components of a structure are structural elements or superstructures, and each has distinct structural parcels that should be taken into account. Similar corridor are.
  • ROOF: …
  • PARAPET: …
  • LINTEL: …
  • BEAM: …
  • COLUMNS: …
  • WALLS:

What are the basic structural components of a house?

The systems that make up a house are:
  • Foundation.
  • Frame.
  • Roof. The Functional.
  • Windows/Doors.
  • Plumbing.
  • Electrical.
  • HVAC. The Finishes.
  • Siding / Gutter / Soffit / Fasia.

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