8D Problem Solving: What It Is and How To Use It

La façon dont vous réagissez en cas de problème en dit généralement long sur le manager que vous faites. Bonne nouvelle, certains outils spécialement conçus à cet effet vous permettront de maîtriser l’art de la résolution de problèmes comme personne. Très bon exemple, la méthode 8D allie travail d’équipe et statistiques de base pour vous aider à trouver une solution logique à vos problèmes et à en prévenir au mieux l’apparition.

Et oui, les choses ne se passent pas toujours comme prévu. Mais ce n’est pas une raison pour jeter l’éponge au premier problème de production ou de processus venu ! Au contraire, misez sur l’amélioration de vos compétences en matière de résolution de problèmes et trouvez le moyen de couper le mal à la racine.

La méthode 8D mise avant tout sur le travail d’équipe, non seulement pour résoudre les problèmes qui surviennent au cours de vos processus, mais aussi pour éviter que de nouveaux ne viennent pointer le bout de leur nez. Dans ce guide, découvrez en quoi cette méthode consiste, comment la mettre en œuvre efficacement et quels sont les avantages qu’elle présente pour vous et votre équipe. Un modèle pour faciliter votre démarche est également inclus.

8D problem solving approach

How to use 8D problem solving

The 8D problem-solving process comprises these nine steps:

1. D0: Prepare and plan

Before starting the 8D process, evaluate the problem that youre trying to solve. Collect information about the different effects of the problem and what the most severe issues are that may result from the problem. Keep a checklist of these issues so that you can better work to resolve them, including by deciding what resources you may need. Consider seeking feedback from others involved to ensure a well-informed and rational approach . During the 8D process, try to protect the customer from any ongoing negative effects associated with the problem until youre able to solve it.

2. D1: Form a team

Create a team made up of people who have knowledge of the various products and processes involved. Choose people who also have the time and skills in the necessary areas to solve the problem and put corrective actions into effect. Some of the different actions that make up this step in the 8D problem-solving process include:

3. D2: Define and describe the problem

Identify the problem in very clear and quantifiable terms by identifying the who, what, where, when, why, how and how many (5W2H) of the problem. Then, clearly describe the problem. Actions for this step include:

4. D3: Develop interim containment actions

Define and implement actions that will contain the problem within the business and isolate it from any customer. Containing the problem is a temporary solution while the team is developing permanent corrective or preventive actions to solve the problem. After defining and implementing an interim containment action, the team also checks with the customer to see if the action has been effective.

5. D4: Define and verify root causes and escape points

Look for causes that may explain why the problem happened. Test each potential root cause against the problem description and its related test data. Try to find the point in the process where the first indications of a problem arose and identify why your team didnt notice it. This point is called the escape point.

Those using the 8D model should consider all potential root causes before verifying or dismissing them. Some people may use the 5 whys along with cause-and-effect diagrams to test the various causes against the problem theyve identified.

6. D5: Choose and verify permanent corrective actions (PCAs) for the problem

Choose the most likely solution to remove the root cause of the problem, then come up with the most likely solution to the issues with the escape point. Double-check to make sure that both these solutions have a good chance of correcting the problem for the customer without any negative outcomes or unwanted effects.

7. D6: Implement and validate permanent corrective actions

The next step is to plan, define and put into effect the best permanent corrective actions, or CAs, to remove any root causes and escape points. Once you implement these corrective actions, you can remove any interim containment actions. Observe the results over a long period and verify the success of the new solutions by seeing how they affect the customer. Watch for any negative effects from these newly implemented solutions.

8. D7: Prevent recurrence

Modify the management systems, operation systems, methods and procedures to ensure that this problem is less likely to happen again. Look for opportunities to improve these systems and procedures to eliminate the current problem that youve been working to resolve. Also look for ways to improve your methods to stop similar problems from developing later on.

9. D8: Recognize team and individual contribution

The final step in the 8D process is to look back over the problem-solving project and all the work that the group accomplished throughout the 8D process. Document everything and save all notes, lessons, research and test data. Then, openly acknowledge your appreciation for the teams collaborative efforts while also recognizing the contributions of the individuals involved.

What is the 8D problem-solving method?

The 8D problem-solving method is an approach that quality engineers and other professionals often use to identify, correct and eliminate difficulties and issues that regularly occur. 8D refers to the 8 different disciplines, or steps, that it included when the first company ever used it. However, there is now an additional stage, called the planning stage, at the beginning of the process.

People employ 8D to improve processes and products, usually in the automotive industry or in health care, manufacturing, finance, government or retail. 8D works by finding the root cause of a problem, followed by a statistical analysis of the problem. Based on that, the 8D model works to first implement interim solutions that can alleviate some of the negative effects of the problem. Meanwhile, a team continues searching for and implementing permanent corrective actions for the problem.

Benefits of 8D problem solving

Some of the many benefits of 8D problem solving include:

When to use 8D problem solving

There are many times when using 8D problem solving is useful for identifying the root cause of the problem, solve it and prevent similar ones from arising in the future. Examples of when to use 8D problem solving are when:

FAQ

What are 8D steps?

8D Stands for the Eight Disciplines of team-oriented problem-solving. It is a step-by-step process of identifying the root cause of a problem, providing corrective solutions, and preventive solutions to eliminate the recurring problems permanently. 8D follows the logic of PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Adjust).

How many steps are in the 8D approach to problem solving?

D6: Implement and Validate Corrective Actions

It’s worth noting that six steps into the 8D method is when you’re finally ready to implement the corrective action, highlighting the key role of planning in this method. Management needs to be an active participant in verifying implementation of corrective actions.

What is an 8D used for?

The purpose of the 8D methodology is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems, making it useful in product and process improvement.

Is 8D a Six Sigma tool?

8D has become one of the leading frameworks for process improvement. It is robust and can mix easily with other prominent methodologies such as Six Sigma. The following are improvement tools often used in Six Sigma processes. Learn how the addition of 8D can improve the process even further.

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